Sare sozialak egitura sozialak dira, non gizabanako (ez soilik pertsonak, baizik eta elkarteak, taldeak…) ezberdinak erlazionatuta dauden eta komunikazioa mantentzen duten (infromazioa transmititu eta jasotzen dute). Komunikazio elkartze honek gizartea batzeako era bat da, momendu guztian konektatuta egoteko modu bat.
Mundu mailako sare sozial nagusiak honexek dira: Hi5, MySpace, Facebook, Tuenti, Twitter eta Orkut. Sare sozialak helburu ezberdinak izan ahal dituzte,hau da, arlo ezberdinetan oinarritzen direla; eta horrela gertatzen da.
- MySpace: Web orrialde antzeko bat ematen dizu. Honetan bideoak, argazkiak eta bloga daude.
- Facebook: Unibertsitatean dauden ikasleentzako sare-sozial moduan hasi zen, baina mundu osora zabaldu da.
- Flickr: Rgazkilaritza maite dutenentzako sare soziala.
- Weblife.es: Idazle eta poeten sare-soziala.
Baina aztertzera goazena Twitter da. Sare sozial hau 2006ko martxoan hasi zen funtzionatzen eta garai hartan mezuak denbora errealean bidaltzen oinarritzen zen. Gaur egun ere, abantailarik nagusiena hori da, ekintzak gertatzen ari diren aldi berean twitter-en bidez komunikatzeko aukera dagoela. Sinpletasuna eta zehaztasuna dira ezaugarri garrantzitsuenetakoak. Bidali ahal diren mezuak hitz-muga daukate eta horrek informazioaren edukia kontzentratua egotea eskatzen du. Honetaz gain, erraztasunak ematen ditu: mezuak gailu eta modu ezberdinen bidez bidali daitezke: mugikor, web, mugikorreko internet, eta beste sistema batzuen bidez (API erabiliz).
Twitter-ek erronka berriak ditu eta hauei aurre eginez mobiletik erabiltzeko twitter-a sortu du, betiere erabiltzaileek eskatzen dutena kontutan hartuz. Azken finean, sare sozialak gizarteak dituen beharretara moldatzen dira.Horrela sare sozialak erabiltzaileentzako lagungrriak bihurtzen dira.
Twitter-en web orrialdetik ateratako aipua:
Dicho eso, la gente parece estar siempre pidiendo más formas de compartir su opinión con otros y organizarse ellos mismos y sus actualizaciones en grupos. Estamos prestando atención a estas peticiones.
- Boyd, Dana M. (School of Information University of California-Berkeley) eta Ellison, Nicole B. (Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies, and Media Michigan State University). (2007).Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html
- Wikipedia. Twitter. http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter
- Blog sobre Twitter y microblogging en español. http://estwitter.com/
CiteULike is a free service to help internet users to store, organise and share the scholarly papers they are reading. When the user see a paper on the web that interests him, ge can click one button and have it added to his personal library. CiteULike automatically extracts the citation details, so there’s no need to type them in himself. It all works from within a web browser so there’s no need to install any software. Because the library is stored on the server, it can be accessed from any computer with an Internet connection.
In the style of other popular social bookmarking sites such as del.icio.us it allows users to bookmark and “tag” URIs with personal metadata using a Web browser. CiteULike normalizes bookmarks before adding them to its database, which means it calculates whether each URI bookmarked identifies an identical publication added by another user, with an equivalent URI.
CiteULike is based on the principle of social bookmarking and is aimed to promote and to develop the sharing of scientific references amongst researchers. In the same way that it is possible to catalog web pages (with Furl and del.icio.us) or photographs (with Flickr), scientists can share information on academic papers with specific tools developed for that purpose.
Citeulike FAQ http://www.citeulike.org/faq/faq.adp
Citeulike in Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CiteULike
The development of computers has undoubtedly made an impact on many aspects of our life. In the field of literature, the option to display text on screens has raised an important debate: should we publish books on paper or in an electronic format?
E-books offer a variety of advantages and disadvantages in contrast to printed books:
- A single e-reader device can store hundreds of books in a portable format. In the case of students, it would avoid the need to carry around heavy textbooks which often cause back pain.
- LCD screens emit different amounts of light, which make e-books readable both in the darkness and illuminated environments.
- Libraries or bookshops are not always accesible nearby or open at any hour during the day. With an Internet connection, e-books are acquirable immediately anytime, anywhere.
- Using stylus pens on the touchscreen, it’s possible to highlight words and add annotations which can later be erased without altering the original appearance of the page.
- Electronic text allows for multimedia content to be embedded. Keyword searching and cross-referencing through hyperlinks would improve the utilization of dictionaries.
- Self-publishing becomes easier for autonomous authors. Publishers would benefit from the reduction of production costs as well, which would in turn lessen the prices for the readers.
- On the ecological side, paper consumption would decrease.
- Electronic text can be converted into computer-generated audiobooks. The wider the selection of e-books, the more material made available for the visually impaired or for those who want to listen to the pronunciation of other languages.
- Not all printed titles are available as e-books.
- E-readers run off batteries, which will consume after a limited amount of time.
- E-readers can break down and are more fragile than paper books.
- The downloadable format of e-books make them easier to copy and distribute illegally.
- Many people do not understand how to or are not willing to deal with electronic devices.
- Overall, the familiar feeling of owning a tangible book, where one can leaf through the pages and leave their personal traces during the process, is lost in e-readers.
Changing a tradition is not simple, and it does not seem likely that paper books will ever disappear completely. Still, with the rapid digital revolution our society is going through, it is not difficult to assume that e-books will sooner or later gain a popular status.
- The Possible Future of eBooks and Print Publishers In Planet eBook, by David Spiselman.
- The Future of E-Books .In BusinessWeek, by Kimberly Castro.
- E-book In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
- Print books vs. digital ebooks In Computing Unplugged – ZATZ Publishing, by Sam Kleinman.
- Books versus documents: what’s wrong with so-called “e-books´´In Ars Technica, by Jon Stokes.
Historia osoan zehar, batez ere inprentaren etorreratik, argi eta garbi ikusi izan da beti nor zen obra baten autorea eta nork zeuzkan horren gaineko eskubide guztiak. Interneten etorrerarekin ordea, autoreen eskubidea beraiek idatzitako obren gainean zalantzatan jarri da, liburuen informazio guztia internetera heldu da eta bertan erraz kopiatu eta banatu daiteke inolako baimenik gabe.
Batzuk, jabetza intelektualaren kontzeptu honen aurka ageri dira eta “copyleft” delako lizentziaren sorrera bultzatu dute. Copyleft, Copyrightaren kontzeptuaren aurkako bezala jaio zen eta talde lanaren kontzeptuak bultzatzen ditu hala nola jendearen partaidetza handitu… etab.
Honez gain, copyleft lizentziapean argitaratua izan dena, edonoren esku dago eta bakoitzak bere erara manipulatu dezake baina, inork ezingo luke beste batek egindako lanetik probetxurik atera, izan ere, norbaitek material honetatik baliatuz beste bat egin edota publikatuko balu, copyleft kondizio berdinetan egin beharko litzateke.
- Copyleft. Wikipedia, Entziklopedia askea. http://eu.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copyleft&oldid=1310934
- ¿Que es copyleft? . Fundación CopyLeft. http://fundacioncopyleft.org/es/9/que-es-copyleft
“Sir Timothy John “Tim” Berners-Lee is a British engineer and computer scientist and MIT professor credited with inventing the World Wide Web, making the first proposal for it in March 1989. On 25 December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau and a young student staff at CERN, he implemented the first successful communication between an HTTP client and server via the Internet. However, the general ideas for the Internet were outlined, also the technological aspect, earlier than Berner-Lee’s technological proposal. In 2007, he was ranked Joint First, alongside Albert Hofmann, in The Telegraph’s list of 100 greatest living geniuses. Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the Web’s continued development. He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation, and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com Founders Chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He is a director of The Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In April 2009, he was elected as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, based in Washington, D.C.
He has several awards:
• Honorary from the Open University as Doctor of the University.
• Computer History Museum’s Fellow Award, for his seminal contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.
• He was named as the first recipient of Finland’s Millennium Technology Prize, for inventing the World Wide Web. The cash prize, worth one million euros (about £892,000, or US$1.3 million, as of May 2009), was awarded on 15 June, in Helsinki, Finland, by the President of the Republic of Finland, Tarja Halonen.
• He was awarded the rank of Knight Commander (the second-highest rank in the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II, as part of the 2004 New Year’s Honours, and was invested on 16 July 2004.”
- Tim Berners-Lee. Taken from Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia,: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee
- Tim Berners-Lee Taken from Tim Berners-Lee,: http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/
- Tim Berners-Lee Taken from Cuando Tim Berners Lee presentaba el WorldWideWeb : http://www.maestrosdelweb.com/editorial/cuando-tim-berners-lee-presentaba-el-worldwideweb/
The Cascading Style Sheets, commonly known as CSS, is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics of a document written in a markup language, specially webpages written in XHTML and HTML though it can be applied to any XML file. More easily explained, it is simply used for adding style to documents. HTML did not intend to contain tags for formatting a document, but to define the content of a document. When tags were added it started a problem for web developers. Development of large web sites became a long and expensive process. CSS was created to solve this problem. Finally In HTML 4.0, all formatting could be stored in a separate CSS file, and all browsers support CSS nowadays. Among the advantages, we can find the flexibility of the programming, the separation of content from presentation, the site-wide consistency, the open bandwidth which increases speed and the easy page reformatting. Reources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/ http://www.w3schools.com/css/ http://www.csszengarden.com/
Girl reading a Letter at an Open Window is a painting finished in 1657 by the Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. At first it was attributed to Rembrandt. But, in fact, this was something common. There were great difficulties to establish which painting were by Vermeer himself and which were not, mainly because of problems with the signature recorded in the paintings. In addition to this already existing problems we have to bear in mind that there are no letters by Vermeer where some kind of information could be found, nor even any contract or paper where clarify something. Besides, we know very little by Vermeer’s life. However, in 1862 the correct identification was made and the painting was eventually attributed to Vermeer.
If I have chosen this painting and not any other is because the intimacy of the painting itself surprises me. There are nor so many painters that achieve this kind of intimacy I am referring to. You can see a girl reading a letter, alone in a room, with the outside world in front of her eyes, and she just focuses her attention in the letter, in what is written there. She is indifferent to the rest of the world, and the stillness she shows I think is quite amazing. She seems as rejecting the world, the room, the house, even herself. She just reads a letter. A letter that maybe she has been expecting long time ago. Good or bad news, it doesn’t matter. That’s why I chose this painting.
Vermeer’s style has been compared to Rembrandt’s style. They have something very special in common but many differences at the same time. Rembrandt is darker, while Vermeer is brighter. But what they have in common is where they focus the light. They set up the light in a specific point in the picture, but not any point, but the important one. Where the eyes have to be driven, where we should focus our attention. A very good example is in “Girl with a pearl earring” painting. We can consider that there are three main points of light: the face itself, the mouth lower lip and the earring. The important points are reflected with light.
It’s funny to know that at the back of the picture, in the wall, and next to the girl, there was a Cupid picture. That shows that the letter the girl is reading is a love letter. Besides, the fruits on the bed, next to the tapestry, contains apples, among other fruits, meaning that is an infidelity, an extra-marital relationship. I did not notice these features when I decided to choose this painting. What called my attention was the letter, the girl’s face, her expression, what that could mean, what is hidden. The soft and pale colours of the painting also called my attention. The light can be seen perfectly well, and the scene is brilliantly defined.
The girl is holding on her breath,she is nervous, expectant. That’s what I like the most of this painting.
Understanding “A Girl Reading a Letter by an Open window”. Important facts taken from the text on the webpage:
– It was painted in the late 1650s.
– The compositional formula he uses in this painting – depicting a corner of a large room lit through a window on the left side – is inspired by Pieter de Hooch’s work.
– Vermeer transforms reality in his painting, which is his most famous characteristic but also the most difficult one.
– The way he depicts the action in the painting influence the spectator when seeing the painting: the frame of the window on the lefts side directs our attention into the chair, situated below the window. This chair, at the same time, directs our gaze into the illuminated letter the young woman is holding, and reading.
– According to Alejandro Vergara, “the reflection of the girl in the window emphasizes the importance of the letter, which becomes the psychological axis of the painting”.
– It is curious to note that the angle of the bowl of fruit and the girl’s forearm are parallel so we relate them visually.
– All the elements on the painting are visually related, what makes us believe that Vermeer’s paintings have rhythm.
– The analysis by X-rays showed that there was a painting of Cupid on the wall at the very beginning. The theories have stated that this painting was removed because it would call more the attention of the people Cupid’s painting than the rest of the painting itself.
– The removed painting of Cupid proves the statement that this was a love letter true. Moreover, the bowl of fruit on the bed also proves that this is an extramarital relationship: the bowl contains apples and peaches remind us Eve’s sin.
– The idea of including a curtain in the painting has numerous precedents and became very popular in the mid 17th century. The curtain is playing a role in the painting: is showing us a private, intimate scene, which we should not be watching, in which a woman is reading a letter from somebody else, probably a lover.
Alejandro Vergara, (2003) In Essential Vermeer. From http://www.essentialvermeer.com
The picture was acquired in 1724 by August III, elector of Saxony, together with a number of other paintings bought in Paris. The seller threw in the picture as a present, to sweeten the deal. It was then attributed to Rembrandt, and the ascription was subsequently weakened to “manner” or “school of”. In 1783, it was engraved as a work by Govaert Flinck. The name “Van der Meer from Delft” occurred for the first time in a catalog dating from 1806, to be changed back to Flinck in 1817. From 1826 to 1860, the appellation was altered to Pieter de Hooch. It is only since 1862 that the correct identification obtains. The only Dutch provenance that could possibly apply is the sale Pieter van der Lip, Amsterdam, 1712, no. 22, “A Woman Reading in a Room, by van der Meer of Delft fl 110″. Unfortunately, the text is not specific enough to distinguish it from the one at the Rijksmuseum, Woman in Blue Reading a Letter.
The above underlines the difficulties inherent to the establishment of Vermeer’s catalog. Not a single work can be traced back to the painter’s studio, nor are there any letters or contracts extant. The task of attribution rests squarely upon the shoulders of the individual critic, which explains the multiplicity of divergent opinions. In this painting, a young woman stands in the center of the composition, facing in profile an open window to the left. In the foreground is a table covered with the same Oriental rug encountered in the Woman Asleep. On it is the identical Delft plate with fruit. The window reflects the girl’s features, while to the right the large green curtain forms a deceptive frame. She is precisely silhouetted against a bare wall that reflects the light and envelops her in its luminosity.
We are here confronted with one of the salient aspects of Vermeer’s sensibility and originality. It is the stillness that stands out, the inner absorption, the remoteness from the outer world. She concentrates entirely upon the letter, holding it firmly and tautly, while she absorbs its content with utmost attention.
In the technique, the artist avows again Rembrandtesque derivation. He paints in small fatty dabs to model the forms, and obtains the desired effects by means of impasto highlights opposed to the deeper tonalities – just as the master from Leyden was wont to do. The painting is relatively large, and the smallness of the figure as opposed to its surroundings stresses immateriality and depersonalization. Vermeer considerably changed the composition in the course of execution.
Much has been written about the trompe-l’oeil effect of the curtain. It is a pictorial artifice used by many other Dutch masters and in keeping with an old European tradition. Rembrandt, Gerard Dou, Nicolaes Maes, and many still-life and even landscape painters made use of such curtains as a means of simulating effects that now seem theatrical. The light background can be found in many paintings by Carel Fabritius, the Goldfinch from 1654 at the Mauritshuis in The Hague being the most famous example.
Girl Reading a Letter by an Open Window, In Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girl_reading_a_Letter_at_an_Open_Window