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Differences between e-books and printed books

Posted in edición by erikatxu on julio 12, 2010

The development of computers has undoubtedly made an impact on many aspects of our life. In the field of literature, the option to display text on screens has raised an important debate: should we publish books on paper or in an electronic format?

E-books offer a variety of advantages and disadvantages in contrast to printed books:

Advantages:

  1. A single e-reader device can store hundreds of books in a portable format. In the case of students, it would avoid the need to carry around heavy textbooks which often cause back pain.
  2. LCD screens emit different amounts of light, which make e-books readable both in the darkness and illuminated environments.
  3. Libraries or bookshops are not always accesible nearby or open at any hour during the day. With an Internet connection, e-books are acquirable immediately anytime, anywhere.
  4. Using stylus pens on the touchscreen, it’s possible to highlight words and add annotations which can later be erased without altering the original appearance of the page.
  5. Electronic text allows for multimedia content to be embedded. Keyword searching and cross-referencing through hyperlinks would improve the utilization of dictionaries.
  6. Self-publishing becomes easier for autonomous authors. Publishers would benefit from the reduction of production costs as well, which would in turn lessen the prices for the readers.
  7. On the ecological side, paper consumption would decrease.
  8. Electronic text can be converted into computer-generated audiobooks. The wider the selection of e-books, the more material made available for the visually impaired or for those who want to listen to the pronunciation of other languages.

Disadvantages:

  1. Not all printed titles are available as e-books.
  2. E-readers run off batteries, which will consume after a limited amount of time.
  3. E-readers can break down and are more fragile than paper books.
  4. The downloadable format of e-books make them easier to copy and distribute illegally.
  5. Many people do not understand how to or are not willing to deal with electronic devices.
  6. Overall, the familiar feeling of owning a tangible book, where one can leaf through the pages and leave their personal traces during the process, is lost in e-readers.

Changing a tradition is not simple, and it does not seem likely that paper books will ever disappear completely. Still, with the rapid digital revolution our society is going through, it is not difficult to assume that e-books will sooner or later gain a popular status.

References: 

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Autoretza digitala (copyleft)

Posted in edición by erikatxu on julio 12, 2010

Historia osoan zehar, batez ere inprentaren etorreratik, argi eta garbi ikusi izan da beti  nor zen obra baten autorea eta nork zeuzkan horren gaineko eskubide guztiak. Interneten etorrerarekin ordea, autoreen eskubidea beraiek idatzitako obren gainean zalantzatan jarri da, liburuen informazio guztia internetera heldu da eta bertan erraz kopiatu eta banatu daiteke inolako baimenik gabe.

Batzuk, jabetza intelektualaren kontzeptu honen aurka ageri dira eta “copyleft” delako lizentziaren sorrera bultzatu dute. Copyleft, Copyrightaren kontzeptuaren aurkako bezala jaio zen eta talde lanaren kontzeptuak bultzatzen ditu hala nola jendearen partaidetza handitu… etab.

Honez gain, copyleft lizentziapean argitaratua izan dena, edonoren esku dago eta bakoitzak bere erara manipulatu dezake baina, inork ezingo luke beste batek egindako lanetik probetxurik atera, izan ere, norbaitek material honetatik baliatuz beste bat egin edota publikatuko balu, copyleft kondizio berdinetan egin beharko litzateke.

Erreferentziak:

Tim Berners-Lee

Posted in edición by erikatxu on julio 12, 2010

“Sir Timothy John “Tim” Berners-Lee is a British engineer and computer scientist and MIT professor credited with inventing the World Wide Web, making the first proposal for it in March 1989. On 25 December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau and a young student staff at CERN, he implemented the first successful communication between an HTTP client and server via the Internet. However, the general ideas for the Internet were outlined, also the technological aspect, earlier than Berner-Lee’s technological proposal. In 2007, he was ranked Joint First, alongside Albert Hofmann, in The Telegraph’s list of 100 greatest living geniuses. Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the Web’s continued development. He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation, and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com Founders Chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He is a director of The Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In April 2009, he was elected as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, based in Washington, D.C.
He has several awards:
• Honorary from the Open University as Doctor of the University.
• Computer History Museum’s Fellow Award, for his seminal contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.
• He was named as the first recipient of Finland’s Millennium Technology Prize, for inventing the World Wide Web. The cash prize, worth one million euros (about £892,000, or US$1.3 million, as of May 2009), was awarded on 15 June, in Helsinki, Finland, by the President of the Republic of Finland, Tarja Halonen.
• He was awarded the rank of Knight Commander (the second-highest rank in the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II, as part of the 2004 New Year’s Honours, and was invested on 16 July 2004.”

References:

Cascading Style Sheets

Posted in edición by erikatxu on julio 12, 2010

The Cascading Style Sheets, commonly known as CSS, is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics of a document written in a markup language, specially webpages written in XHTML and HTML though it can be applied to any XML file. More easily explained, it is simply used for adding style to documents. HTML did not intend to contain tags for formatting a document, but to define the content of a document. When tags were added it started a problem for web developers. Development of large web sites became a long and expensive process. CSS was created to solve this problem. Finally In HTML 4.0, all formatting could be stored in a separate CSS file, and all browsers support CSS nowadays. Among the advantages, we can find the flexibility of the programming, the separation of content from presentation, the site-wide consistency, the open bandwidth which increases speed and the easy page reformatting. Reources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets http://www.w3.org/Style/CSS/ http://www.w3schools.com/css/ http://www.csszengarden.com/

SHEETS

Posted in edición by erikatxu on enero 29, 2010

Web style sheets are a form of separation of presentation and content for web design in which the markup (i.e., HTML or XHTML) of a webpage contains the page’s semantic content and structure, but does not define its visual layout (style). Instead, the style is defined in an external stylesheet file using a style sheet language such as CSS or XSL. This design approach is identified as a “separation” because it largely supersedes the antecedent methodology in which a page’s markup defined both style and structure. The philosophy underlying this methodology is a specific case of separation of concerns.

* Style sheets (January 2, 2010) from Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Style_sheet_(web_development)

* Hojas de estilo (November 16, 2009) from Wikipedia: La enciclopedia libre. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hojas_de_estilo

CITEULIKE, GOOGLEBOOKS, GOGLEREADER

Posted in edición by erikatxu on enero 25, 2010

CiteUlike:  CiteUlike argitalpen akademikoak antolatzeko dohainikako zerbitzu bat da. Interneten 2004. Urtean jarri zen martxan eta momentu beren Manchester-eko Unibertsitatean gehitu zen. Ikasle eta zientifikoen beharrizanak asetzeko zehazki sortua izan da. Leku hau Richar Cameron-ek maneiatzen du Manchester-eko Unibertsitatean. Sistema hau edozein pertsonengan esku dago zeinek edozein interneteko dokumentuen informazio zientifikoko eta teknikoen erreferentzien inguruan negoziaketak egin edota partekatu ditzakeen.Erreferentziak faboritoen markatzaile baten bidez lortzen dira, markatzaile hau nabigatzailean instalatuta dago eta web-gune zehatz batean agertzen diren datu bibliografikoak erauzten ditu. CiteUlike-n izaera soilik akademikoa da. Denontzat ikusgai diren erreferentzi zientifikoak partekatzeko erabilgarria da. Gainera, Bibtex eta Nota-rekin lan egitea ahalbidetzen du baita ere erreferentzietan komentario pribatuak aurkeztea.

GoogleBooks:  Argitaratutako milaka liburuen informazioa gordetzen duen zerbitzua da. Zerbitzu hau 2003.urtean sortu zen zerbitzariei liburu hauen barruko edozein informazio mota topatzeko asmoarekin printzipalki. Informazio hau lortzeko, Google-k teknologia zehatz bat asmatu du liburu hauek eskaneatu eta hauen informazioa sailkatzeko. “New York Times”-en arabera, 2007an Google-k milioi bat inguru liburu digitalizatu zituen eta 2009an, Google-k kantitatea 10 milioira iritsi zela argitaratu zuen. Gainera, Google-k ere liburu batzuen osotasun osoa aurkezten du.

GlogleReader: Azkenik, Google Reader dugu. Atom-ak eta RSS kanalak linean edo konexiorik gabe ere irakur ditzake. 2005. urtean aurkeztu zen aurrenekoz baina 2007.urterarte ez zen erabili orain daukagun bertsio hau.

Iturriak: Google Books. In Google Dirson, noticias de google en español. Kontsultatua: 08: 45, 2009ko abenduaren 27an. Orrialdea: http://google.dirson.com/post/2787-libros-google-formato-pdf/

CiteUlike. (2009ko azaoaren 29a). Wikipedia, Entziklopedia Askean. Kontsultatua: 08:15, 2009ko abenduaren 27an. Orrialdea: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CiteULike Google Books. (2009ko abenduaren 24a). Wikipedia, Entziklopedia Askean. Kontsultatua: 08:22, 2009ko abeduaren 27an. Orrialdea: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Google_Books&oldid=333855298

Google Reader. (2009ko abenduaren 22a). Wikipedia, Entziklopedia Askean. Kontsultatua: 09:04, 2009ko abenduaren 27an. Orrialdea: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Google_Reader&oldid=333224059

e-book and paper book

Posted in edición by erikatxu on enero 25, 2010

An ebook is a digital book, is a equivalent of a traditional printed book. E-books are found in personal computers, movil phones or hardware deviced known as e-Readers.

 There are a lot of differences between an e-book and a printed book, some of them are:

 An e-book can be with you at all moment a cause of it can be purchased, and used immediately , however, a book can’t be use as easily because firstly, it must be bought in a bookshop and the it must be carried on with you in a bag if you don’t have a bag it’s more difficult to carry it and sometimes it’s prefered to leave it at home.

  Another difference E-books are cheaper than traditional books. Apart from that a normal book needed more space than an e-book that can be kept in a computer or a movil phone.Also, when you have finished a e-book you can delete it, in normal books you can’t.

 Furthermore, e-books contains a lot of animated images, unlike printed books that have many few images and most of them are very small.

There are a lot of differences between these two types of books, but the main difference and more favorable reason  to prefer the e-boks is that these ones not consume paper, so there are not a damage to the environment.

   The great majority of the people prefer e-books, and in a close future, printed books will be remplaced by e-books.

  REFERENCES:

E-book and printed book. ( 2009 ). In O`Reilly. From http://toc.oreilly.com/2008/07/ebooks-and-print-books-are-not.html

Posted in edición by erikatxu on enero 25, 2010

Until the Romanticism, it was not important who had written certain books or plays as the figure of the author was not relevant. However, in this period this changed radically. Owing to this, the rights of the author have been preserved with dedication by the Intellectual Property Organization, which refers to creations of the mind -inventions, literary and artistic works,symbols, names, images-, for the last 2 centuries

As it’s known, there had been plagiarism before, but it is a fact that with Internet, specifically with the WWW, it has increased due to many reasons.

Internet has expanded the number of resources and contents, being their access easy, free and rapid, now more than ever. On the one hand, all this information given by Internet is very useful in education, since it makes the learning process easier due to the fact that anyone with a computer and internet can have access to a lot of information. On the other hand, its use makes plagiarims easier.

This is a problem at Universities because students usually take information from the Internet without verifying it and without saying the author or the source of that idea, what is plagiarism. It’s important to verify the information taken since in Internet everyone, with criteria or without it, can participate.

In order to decrease plagiarism in Universities, they punish students. The consecuences of these activities can be from rewriting the essay to the expulsion of the University. In the English-Speaking countries (USA, Canada, Australia, UK…) is where plagiarism is more controlled and pursued.

SOURCES:

* Ciber-Plagio Académico, Una aproximación al estado de los conocimientos.(2007) In Revista TEXTOS de la CiberSociedad, 10, by Comas, Rubén & Sureda, Jaume, Temática Variada.  from http://www.cibersociedad.net and http://www.cibersociedad.net/textos/articulo.php?art=121